# Our Changing Views of Photons

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Our Changing Views of Photons

A Tutorial Memoir

Shore, Bruce W.

Oxford University Press

09/2020

512

Dura

Inglês

9780198862857

15 a 20 dias

1144

Descrição não disponível.

Preface

The Cartoons

Introduction

1.1: Overview of the memoir narrative

1.2: Preliminaries: Defining terms

1.3: Models of physical phenomena

1.4: Caveats

Basic background: Everyday physics and its math

2.1: Some mathematics

2.2: Particles: Elementary and structured

2.3: Aggregates: Fluids, flows, waves, and granules

2.4: Free space; the Vacuum

2.5: Forces and vectors

2.6: Energy and heat

2.7: Equations of change: Particles and fluids

2.8: Light: Electromagnetic radiation

2.9: Possible radiation granularity; Photons

2.10: Angular momentum: Orbital and spin

2.11: Probabilities

2.12: Quantum states

The photons of P;anck, Einstein and Bohr

3.1: Thermal light: Planck quanta

3.2: Spectroscopy: Photons as energy packets

3.3: Discrete energies of atoms

3.4: The Bohr-Einstein emission and absorption photons

3.5: The photoelectric effect; The Einstein photon

3.6: Scattered photons: Doppler and Compton

3.7: Revised views of Planck, Einstein and Compton photons

3.8: Beyond emitted and absorbed quanta

3.9: Bohr

The Photons of Dirac

4.1: Modes: Electron orbitals and cavity radiation; Superpositions

4.2: Dirac's photons: Mode increments

4.3: Emission and absorption photons

4.4: Comment: Next steps

Photons as population changers

5.1: Interactions, decoherence and ensembles

5.2: Einstein-equation populations; Equilibrium

5.3: Einstein-equation photons; Lasers

5.4: Coherent population changes

5.5: Rabi oscillations

5.6: Assured two-state excitation

5.7: Single atoms, single boxed photons

5.8: The Jaynes-Cummings model; Evidence for photons

5.9: Coherent change; Interaction linkages

5.10: Morris-Shore photons

5.11: Pulsed excitation

5.12: Objectives of quantum-state manipulations; Superpositions

Photon messengers

6.1: Astronomical photons

6.2: Scattered photons

6.3: Electrical circuits

6.4: Information

6.5: Photons as information carriers

6.6: The no-cloning theorem

6.7: Correlation and entaglement

Manipulating photons

7.1: Particle conservation

7.2: Creating single photons

7.3: Detecting photons

7.4: Altering photons

7.5: Storing and restoring photons

7.6: Verifying photons

Overview; Ways of regarding photons

8.1: Historical photons

8.2: Pulsed photons

8.3: Steady, Feynman photons

8.4: Crowds and singles

8.5: Interacting photons

8.6: Doing without photons

8.7: Alternatives to photons

8.8: Contemporary evidence for photons

8.9: Photons in biology

Finale

9.1: A concluding thought

9.2: Basic reference

9.3: Acknowledgements

Appendix A: Atoms and their mathematics

A.1: Classical equations of particle motion

A.2: Measurement; Sizes

A.3: Abstract vector spaces

A.4: Quantization

A.5: Wave mechanics and wavefunctions

A.6: Phase space

A.7: Matrix mechanics and operators

A.8: The statevector

A.9: The time-dependant Schrodinger equation

A.10: Two-state coherent excitation

A.11: Degeneracies and ensembles

A.12: Adiabatic elimination; Multiphoton interaction

A.13: Adiabatic change

A.14: Density matrices and mixed states

A.15: Three-state pulsed coherent excitation

A.16: Radiative rate equations

A.17: Alegebras

A.18: Group theory

A.19: The Standard Model of particle physics

Appendix B: Radiation and photons

B.1: Electromagnetic equations in free space

B.2: Classical field modes; Examples

B.3: Quantized field modes; Dirac photons

B.4: Photon number-statesuperpositions

B.5: Temporal variations; Quantum character

B.6: Alternative views of photons

B.7: Thermal equilibrium; Planck photons

B.8: Incoherent radiation; Photon crowds

Appendix C: Couples atom and field equations

C.1: The Maxwell equations in matter

C.2: Bulk-matter steady response

C.3: Bulk-matter transient sources

C.4: The atom-photon Hamiltonian

C.5: The Jaynes-Cummings model

C.6: Cavity STIRAP

C.7: Paired, product spaces; Entanglement

C.8: The annual greeting cards

References

Index

The Cartoons

Introduction

1.1: Overview of the memoir narrative

1.2: Preliminaries: Defining terms

1.3: Models of physical phenomena

1.4: Caveats

Basic background: Everyday physics and its math

2.1: Some mathematics

2.2: Particles: Elementary and structured

2.3: Aggregates: Fluids, flows, waves, and granules

2.4: Free space; the Vacuum

2.5: Forces and vectors

2.6: Energy and heat

2.7: Equations of change: Particles and fluids

2.8: Light: Electromagnetic radiation

2.9: Possible radiation granularity; Photons

2.10: Angular momentum: Orbital and spin

2.11: Probabilities

2.12: Quantum states

The photons of P;anck, Einstein and Bohr

3.1: Thermal light: Planck quanta

3.2: Spectroscopy: Photons as energy packets

3.3: Discrete energies of atoms

3.4: The Bohr-Einstein emission and absorption photons

3.5: The photoelectric effect; The Einstein photon

3.6: Scattered photons: Doppler and Compton

3.7: Revised views of Planck, Einstein and Compton photons

3.8: Beyond emitted and absorbed quanta

3.9: Bohr

The Photons of Dirac

4.1: Modes: Electron orbitals and cavity radiation; Superpositions

4.2: Dirac's photons: Mode increments

4.3: Emission and absorption photons

4.4: Comment: Next steps

Photons as population changers

5.1: Interactions, decoherence and ensembles

5.2: Einstein-equation populations; Equilibrium

5.3: Einstein-equation photons; Lasers

5.4: Coherent population changes

5.5: Rabi oscillations

5.6: Assured two-state excitation

5.7: Single atoms, single boxed photons

5.8: The Jaynes-Cummings model; Evidence for photons

5.9: Coherent change; Interaction linkages

5.10: Morris-Shore photons

5.11: Pulsed excitation

5.12: Objectives of quantum-state manipulations; Superpositions

Photon messengers

6.1: Astronomical photons

6.2: Scattered photons

6.3: Electrical circuits

6.4: Information

6.5: Photons as information carriers

6.6: The no-cloning theorem

6.7: Correlation and entaglement

Manipulating photons

7.1: Particle conservation

7.2: Creating single photons

7.3: Detecting photons

7.4: Altering photons

7.5: Storing and restoring photons

7.6: Verifying photons

Overview; Ways of regarding photons

8.1: Historical photons

8.2: Pulsed photons

8.3: Steady, Feynman photons

8.4: Crowds and singles

8.5: Interacting photons

8.6: Doing without photons

8.7: Alternatives to photons

8.8: Contemporary evidence for photons

8.9: Photons in biology

Finale

9.1: A concluding thought

9.2: Basic reference

9.3: Acknowledgements

Appendix A: Atoms and their mathematics

A.1: Classical equations of particle motion

A.2: Measurement; Sizes

A.3: Abstract vector spaces

A.4: Quantization

A.5: Wave mechanics and wavefunctions

A.6: Phase space

A.7: Matrix mechanics and operators

A.8: The statevector

A.9: The time-dependant Schrodinger equation

A.10: Two-state coherent excitation

A.11: Degeneracies and ensembles

A.12: Adiabatic elimination; Multiphoton interaction

A.13: Adiabatic change

A.14: Density matrices and mixed states

A.15: Three-state pulsed coherent excitation

A.16: Radiative rate equations

A.17: Alegebras

A.18: Group theory

A.19: The Standard Model of particle physics

Appendix B: Radiation and photons

B.1: Electromagnetic equations in free space

B.2: Classical field modes; Examples

B.3: Quantized field modes; Dirac photons

B.4: Photon number-statesuperpositions

B.5: Temporal variations; Quantum character

B.6: Alternative views of photons

B.7: Thermal equilibrium; Planck photons

B.8: Incoherent radiation; Photon crowds

Appendix C: Couples atom and field equations

C.1: The Maxwell equations in matter

C.2: Bulk-matter steady response

C.3: Bulk-matter transient sources

C.4: The atom-photon Hamiltonian

C.5: The Jaynes-Cummings model

C.6: Cavity STIRAP

C.7: Paired, product spaces; Entanglement

C.8: The annual greeting cards

References

Index

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The Cartoons

Introduction

1.1: Overview of the memoir narrative

1.2: Preliminaries: Defining terms

1.3: Models of physical phenomena

1.4: Caveats

Basic background: Everyday physics and its math

2.1: Some mathematics

2.2: Particles: Elementary and structured

2.3: Aggregates: Fluids, flows, waves, and granules

2.4: Free space; the Vacuum

2.5: Forces and vectors

2.6: Energy and heat

2.7: Equations of change: Particles and fluids

2.8: Light: Electromagnetic radiation

2.9: Possible radiation granularity; Photons

2.10: Angular momentum: Orbital and spin

2.11: Probabilities

2.12: Quantum states

The photons of P;anck, Einstein and Bohr

3.1: Thermal light: Planck quanta

3.2: Spectroscopy: Photons as energy packets

3.3: Discrete energies of atoms

3.4: The Bohr-Einstein emission and absorption photons

3.5: The photoelectric effect; The Einstein photon

3.6: Scattered photons: Doppler and Compton

3.7: Revised views of Planck, Einstein and Compton photons

3.8: Beyond emitted and absorbed quanta

3.9: Bohr

The Photons of Dirac

4.1: Modes: Electron orbitals and cavity radiation; Superpositions

4.2: Dirac's photons: Mode increments

4.3: Emission and absorption photons

4.4: Comment: Next steps

Photons as population changers

5.1: Interactions, decoherence and ensembles

5.2: Einstein-equation populations; Equilibrium

5.3: Einstein-equation photons; Lasers

5.4: Coherent population changes

5.5: Rabi oscillations

5.6: Assured two-state excitation

5.7: Single atoms, single boxed photons

5.8: The Jaynes-Cummings model; Evidence for photons

5.9: Coherent change; Interaction linkages

5.10: Morris-Shore photons

5.11: Pulsed excitation

5.12: Objectives of quantum-state manipulations; Superpositions

Photon messengers

6.1: Astronomical photons

6.2: Scattered photons

6.3: Electrical circuits

6.4: Information

6.5: Photons as information carriers

6.6: The no-cloning theorem

6.7: Correlation and entaglement

Manipulating photons

7.1: Particle conservation

7.2: Creating single photons

7.3: Detecting photons

7.4: Altering photons

7.5: Storing and restoring photons

7.6: Verifying photons

Overview; Ways of regarding photons

8.1: Historical photons

8.2: Pulsed photons

8.3: Steady, Feynman photons

8.4: Crowds and singles

8.5: Interacting photons

8.6: Doing without photons

8.7: Alternatives to photons

8.8: Contemporary evidence for photons

8.9: Photons in biology

Finale

9.1: A concluding thought

9.2: Basic reference

9.3: Acknowledgements

Appendix A: Atoms and their mathematics

A.1: Classical equations of particle motion

A.2: Measurement; Sizes

A.3: Abstract vector spaces

A.4: Quantization

A.5: Wave mechanics and wavefunctions

A.6: Phase space

A.7: Matrix mechanics and operators

A.8: The statevector

A.9: The time-dependant Schrodinger equation

A.10: Two-state coherent excitation

A.11: Degeneracies and ensembles

A.12: Adiabatic elimination; Multiphoton interaction

A.13: Adiabatic change

A.14: Density matrices and mixed states

A.15: Three-state pulsed coherent excitation

A.16: Radiative rate equations

A.17: Alegebras

A.18: Group theory

A.19: The Standard Model of particle physics

Appendix B: Radiation and photons

B.1: Electromagnetic equations in free space

B.2: Classical field modes; Examples

B.3: Quantized field modes; Dirac photons

B.4: Photon number-statesuperpositions

B.5: Temporal variations; Quantum character

B.6: Alternative views of photons

B.7: Thermal equilibrium; Planck photons

B.8: Incoherent radiation; Photon crowds

Appendix C: Couples atom and field equations

C.1: The Maxwell equations in matter

C.2: Bulk-matter steady response

C.3: Bulk-matter transient sources

C.4: The atom-photon Hamiltonian

C.5: The Jaynes-Cummings model

C.6: Cavity STIRAP

C.7: Paired, product spaces; Entanglement

C.8: The annual greeting cards

References

Index