Drugs

Drugs

Mind, Body, and Society, Canadian Edition

;

Oxford University Press, Canada

07/2022

608

Mole

Inglês

9780199037995

Pré-lançamento - envio 15 a 20 dias após a sua edição

Descrição não disponível.
Preface Acknowledgements About the Authors Features Part 1 Foundations Chapter 1 Drugs: Mind, Body, and Society True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 1.1 What Is a Drug? Drug Use and Drug Abuse Drug Addiction and Dependence 1.2 How Prevalent Is Drug Use? Global Drug Use Demographics of Drug Use in Canada Age Gender Ethnoracial Background Education Geography Most Commonly Used Drugs Prescription Drugs Variations in Drug Use over Time 1.3 Why Do People Use Drugs? To Feel Pleasure and to Avoid Feeling Pain To Change the State of Consciousness To Enhance Spiritual, Religious, or Mystical Experiences To Facilitate and Enhance Social Interactions To Alter and Improve the Body 1.4 How Does Drug Use Affect Individuals and Society? Individual Problems with Acute Use Individual Problems with Chronic Use Societal Problems Associated with Drug Use 1.5 How Are Drugs Classified? Drug Types Endogenous Chemicals Are Mimicked by Exogenous Drugs Naturally Occurring Drugs Synthetic Drugs Drug Naming 1.6 How Are New Drugs Developed? Health Canada Drug Development and Approval Preclinical Stage Clinical Stage HPFB Review Post-Marketing Analysis 1.7 Drugs in the Media Advertising Alcohol Advertising Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising Availability of Information for Consumers The Responsibility of Pharmaceutical Companies Views of Physicians Communication with Physicians Movies, Television, and Music Movies Television Music Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 2: Problematic Drug Use and Addiction True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 2.1 Definitions of Dependence and Addiction 2.2 Prevalence of Addiction Addiction and Race Addiction and Age Addiction and Gender 2.3 Recognition, Diagnosis, and Assessment 2.4 Factors Underlying Drug Abuse and Addiction Biological Factors Neuroanatomy Neurochemistry Genetic Factors Underlying Addiction Psychological and Interpersonal Factors Social and Environmental Factors 2.5 Societal Views on Drug Addiction Attitudes about Addiction Based on Gender Attitudes about Addiction Based on Occupation Attitudes about Addiction Based on Survey Question Wording Why Do People's Beliefs about Addiction Matter? Attitudes about Problematic Drinking and other Compulsive Behaviours Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 3: Drug Laws and Policies True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 3.1 The History of Drug Policy Drug Policies and Indigenous Peoples 3.2 Current Drug Laws Drug Scheduling Types of Drug Crimes Penalties for Drug Offenses Possession Drug Trafficking Importing and Exporting Production of a Scheduled Substance Mandatory Minimum Penalties for Serious Drug Offenses Drug Treatment Courts Provincial and Local Drug Laws Drug Crimes Are on the Decline in Canada International Drug Laws and Policies 3.3 Harm Reduction Policies Reduce Health Risks Associated with Drug Use Reduce Prison Overcrowding Focus on Treatment Rather than Punishment Arguments Against the Harm Reduction Approach 3.4 Ramifications of Drug Laws Individual Ramifications Societal Ramifications International Ramifications 3.5 Legalization Factors Considered when Evaluating a Drug's Legal Status Public Opinion on Drug Laws Issues Related to Legalizing Drugs 3.6 Social Policies Related to Drug Use Minimum Legal Drinking Age Drunk Driving Drug Use During Pregnancy Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 4: The Nervous System True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 4.1 The Structure and Function of Neurons 4.2 Neuronal Transmission Resting Membrane Potential Action Potentials Actions at a Chemical Synapse 4.3 The Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems The Peripheral Nervous System The Central Nervous System Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Spinal Cord Protection of the Central Nervous System 4.4 Neurotransmitters GABA Synthesis, Release, and Termination of GABA Location and Function of GABAergic Neurons Drugs that Affect GABAergic Neurons Glutamate Synthesis, Release, and Termination of Glutamate Location and Function of Glutamatergic Neurons Drugs that Affect Glutamatergic Neurons Catecholamines Synthesis, Release, and Termination of Catecholamines Location and Function of Catecholaminergic Neurons Drugs that Affect Catecholamines Serotonin Synthesis, Release, and Termination of Serotonin Location and Function of Serotonergic Neurons Drugs that Affect Serotonergic Neurons Acetylcholine Synthesis, Release, and Termination of Acetylcholine Location and Function of Cholinergic Neurons Opioids Cannabinoids Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 5: Pharmacology: How Drugs Work True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 5.1 Pharmacokinetics Absorption Dosage Route of Administration Oral Administration Absorption across the Mucous Membranes or Skin Inhalation Parenteral Administration Distribution Metabolism and Biotransformation Genetic and Racial Factors Physiological Factors Cross-Reaction Factors Environmental and Dietary Factors Elimination 5.2 Pharmacodynamics Receptors How Ligands Bind: Agonists and Antagonists Types of Receptors Drug Expectations and the Placebo Effect Setting Effects and Side Effects of Acute Drug Use Drug Effectiveness Drug Interactions Effects of Chronic Drug Use Tolerance Acute Tolerance Metabolic Tolerance Cellular Tolerance Behavioural Tolerance Other Forms of Tolerance Withdrawal Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Part 2 Legally Restricted Psychoactive Drugs Chapter 6: Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 6.1 Cocaine History of Cocaine Prevalence of Cocaine Use Sources and Forms of Cocaine Sources of Cocaine Forms of Cocaine Pharmacokinetics of Cocaine Routes of Administration Mechanism of Action of Cocaine Acute Effects of Cocaine Physiological Effects of Cocaine at Low and Moderate Doses Behavioural and Psychological Effects of Cocaine at Low and Moderate Doses Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Cocaine Adverse Effects of Cocaine Chronic Effects of Cocaine Tolerance Withdrawal Adverse Effects from Chronic Use of Cocaine Effects of Cocaine when Taken during Pregnancy Cocaine Dependence and Addiction Treatment of Cocaine Addiction 6.2 Amphetamines History of Amphetamines Prevalence of Amphetamine Use Sources and Forms of Amphetamines Pharmacokinetics of Amphetamines Mechanism of Action of Amphetamines Acute and Adverse Effects of Amphetamines Chronic Effects of Amphetamines Tolerance Adverse Effects from Chronic Use of Amphetamines Amphetamine Dependence and Addiction 6.3 Other Stimulants Khat/Cathinone Bath Salts Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 7: Hallucinogens True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 7.1 History of Hallucinogens History of LSD and Psilocybin Albert Hofmann The CIA and LSD Psychiatric Use of LSD in the 1950s and 1960s Timothy Leary and the 1960s Counterculture History of Peyote/Mescaline History of MDMA History of PCP and Ketamine 7.2 Prevalence of Hallucinogen Use 7.3 Sources and Forms of Hallucinogens Indoleaminic Psychedelic Hallucinogens LSD Psilocybin Morning Glory Seeds DMT Ayahuasca Ibogaine Bufotenine Phenylethylamine Psychedelic Hallucinogens Peyote and Mescaline Nutmeg and Mace MDMA (M, Ecstasy, Molly) Anticholinergic Deliriants Atropa Belladonna Datura Mandrake Dissociative Hallucinogens Amanita Muscaria Mushrooms Salvia PCP and Ketamine 7.4 Cultural and Religious Influence of Hallucinogens Literature Music Spirituality 7.5 Pharmacokinetics of Hallucinogens Dosage Routes of Administration Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination 7.6 Mechanism of Action of Hallucinogens Psychedelic Hallucinogens MDMA Deliriants and Dissociatives 7.7 Acute Effects of Hallucinogens Physiological and Psychological Effects of Psychedelic Hallucinogens Physiological and Psychological Effects of MDMA Physiological and Psychological Effects of Deliriant Hallucinogens Physiological and Psychological Effects of Dissociative Anaesthetics Drug Interactions 7.8 Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Hallucinogens 7.9 Chronic Effects of Hallucinogens Tolerance Adverse Effects of Chronic Use Hallucinogen Dependence and Addiction Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 8: Opioids True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 8.1 History of Opioids Early Opioid Use Smoking Opium Opium Wars Opioids in the 19th Century Social Factors Influencing Opiate Laws Synthesis of Heroin Opioids in the 20th Century Early Federal Government Actions 8.2 Prevalence of Opioid Use Prescription Opioids Heroin 8.3 Sources and Forms of Opioids Natural Opiates Semisynthetic Opioids Synthetic Opioids 8.4 Pharmacokinetics of Opioids Routes of Administration Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination 8.5 Mechanism of Action of Opioids Opioid Receptors Endogenous Opioids 8.6 Acute Effects of Opioids Physiological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses Central Nervous System Cardiovascular and Respiratory Gastrointestinal and Renal Sleep Reproduction and Effects on the Newborn Behavioural and Psychological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses Mood Cognitive Function Drug Interactions Overdose 8.7 Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Opioids Pain Cough Suppressant Diarrhea Treatment 8.8 Chronic Effects of Opioids Tolerance Adverse Effects of Chronic Use Opioid Dependence and Addiction 8.9 Treatment for Opioid Dependence and Addiction Withdrawal Treatments to Aid Withdrawal Ultra-Rapid Opioid Detoxification Substitution Opioids Methadone Buprenorphine (Subutex) Buprenorphine Plus Naloxone (Suboxone) Heroin Programs to Help Quit Opioids Needle Exchange Programs Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 9: Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Inhalants True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 9.1 Sedatives and Hypnotics History of Sedatives and Hypnotics Prevalence of Sedative and Hypnotic Use Sources and Forms of Sedatives and Hypnotics Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Pharmacokinetics of Sedatives and Hypnotics Routes of Administration Absorption and Distribution Metabolism and Elimination Mechanism of Action of Sedatives and Hypnotics GABA Receptor Benzodiazepines' Interaction with the GABAA Receptor Barbiturates' Interaction with the GABAA Receptor Acute Effects of Sedatives and Hypnotics Physiological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses Behavioural and Psychological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses Side Effects Effects on the Fetus Drug Interactions Overdose Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Sedatives and Hypnotics Sleep Antianxiety Drugs and Treatment Anticonvulsants Anaesthesia Chronic Effects of Sedatives and Hypnotics Tolerance to Sedatives and Hypnotics Sedative and Hypnotic Dependence and Addiction Sedative and Hypnotic Withdrawal and Treatment 9.2 Other Sedative/Hypnotic Drugs GHB History of GHB and Prevalence of Its Use Pharmacokinetics and Mechanism of Action of GHB Acute Effects of GHB Medical and Therapeutic Uses of GHB Quaaludes Propofol 9.3 Inhalants History of Inhalants Ether Nitrous Oxide Glue Sniffing Prevalence of Inhalant Use Sources and Forms of Inhalants Volatile Substances Anaesthetic Inhalants: Ether and Nitrous Oxide Nitrites Pharmacokinetics and Mechanism of Action of Inhalants 9.4 Acute Effects of Inhalants Acute Effects of Nitrous Oxide Acute Effects of Amyl Nitrate Chronic Effects of Inhalants Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Part 3 Legal Psychoactive Drugs Chapter 10: Tobacco True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 10.1 History of Tobacco Early Tobacco Use in Europe Tobacco in Colonial America Mechanization Tobacco in the 20th Century Troubled Times for the Tobacco Industry 10.2 Prevalence of Tobacco Use Gender Race Education Employment and Socioeconomic Status Concurrent Use of Other Drugs and Mental Health Age 10.3 Economic and Social Issues Related to Tobacco Economics Advertising Movies 10.4 Sources and Forms of Tobacco Making Tobacco Smoking Tobacco Electronic Cigarettes Smokeless Tobacco 10.5 Pharmacokinetics of Tobacco and Nicotine Dosage, Absorption, and Distribution Metabolism and Elimination Drug Interactions 10.6 Mechanism of Action of Nicotine 10.7 Acute Effects of Tobacco and Nicotine Physiological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses Central Nervous System Cardiovascular Respiratory Gastrointestinal Endocrine Skeletomuscular and Skin Overdose Behavioural and Psychological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses Mood Cognitive Function 10.8 Chronic Effects of Tobacco and Nicotine Tolerance Withdrawal Adverse Effects from Chronic Use Skin Reproductive Effects Cardiovascular Disease Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Gastrointestinal Effects Cancer Prenatal and Postnatal Effects Secondhand Smoke 10.9 Tobacco Dependence and Addiction 10.10 Quitting Tobacco Benefits of Quitting Methods of Quitting Nicotine Replacement Therapies Pharmacological Treatments that Do Not Replace Nicotine Behavioural and Psychosocial Treatments Handy Hints to Help Someone Quit Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 11: Caffeine True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 11.1 History of Caffeine Coffee Tea Chocolate Soft Drinks and Energy Drinks 11.2 Prevalence of Caffeine Use 11.3 Sources and Forms of Caffeine Coffee Tea Chocolate Soft Drinks and Energy Drinks Other Caffeine Sources How Much Caffeine Is in the Substances We Ingest? 11.4 Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine Route of Administration, Absorption, and Distribution Metabolism, Elimination, and Drug Interactions 11.5 Mechanism of Action of Caffeine 11.6 Acute Effects of Caffeine Physiological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses Central Nervous System Cardiovascular and Respiratory Muscular Behavioural and Psychological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses Mood Cognitive Function Overdose 11.7 Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Caffeine Type 2 Diabetes Liver Cognitive Function Parkinson's Disease Cardiovascular Disease Cancer Mortality 11.8 Chronic Effects of Caffeine Tolerance and Dependence Withdrawal Adverse Effects from Chronic Use Effects on the Fetus 11.9 Quitting Caffeine Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 12: Alcohol True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 12.1 History of Alcohol Early Alcohol Use The Middle Ages to the Early Modern Era Colonial America Temperance Movements in North America (19th Century) Prohibition 12.2 Prevalence of Alcohol Use Global Alcohol Use Alcohol Consumption in Canada Current Alcohol Use Binge Drinking Underage Drinking Drinking by University Students 12.3 Sources and Forms of Alcohol Fermented Beverages Distilled Beverages Alcohol Content of Standard Drinks 12.4 Pharmacokinetics of Alcohol Dosage Absorption Distribution Metabolism Enzymes Involved in Metabolism Racial Differences in Metabolic Enzymes Elimination Drug Interactions Combining Alcohol and Caffeine 12.5 Mechanism of Action of Alcohol GABA Glutamate Dopamine Opioids Serotonin Endogenous Cannabinoids 12.6 Acute Effects of Alcohol Physiological Effects Brain Cardiovascular Gastrointestinal Renal Reproductive Behavioural and Psychological Effects Cognitive Function Mood Aggression Adverse Effects from Acute Heavy Drinking Hangover Overdose 12.7 Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Alcohol 12.8 Chronic Effects of Alcohol Tolerance Withdrawal Adverse Effects of Chronic Heavy Drinking Neurological Cardiovascular Immunity Gastrointestinal Cancer Reproductive Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 13: Cannabis True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 13.1 History of Cannabis 17th-to-19th Century Canada 20th Century and Beyond 13.2 Prevalence of Cannabis Use 13.3 Legal and Cultural Issues Related to Cannabis Legal Issues Cultural Issues 13.4 Sources and Forms of Cannabis Types of Cannabis Plant Phytocannabinoids Types of Cannabis Products Synthetic Cannabinoids 13.5 Pharmacokinetics of Cannabis Routes of Administration and Dosage Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination 13.6 Mechanism of Action of Cannabis 13.7 Acute Effects of Cannabis Physiological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses Brain Analgesia Cardiovascular Hunger, Digestion, and Metabolism Immune System Reproductive System Behavioural and Psychological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses Potential Adverse Effects Effects on the Respiratory System Effects on Immunity Reproductive Effects Psychosis Cognitive Effects Drug Interactions Collateral Damage 13.8 Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis Analgesia Nausea, Vomiting, and Appetite Epilepsy Glaucoma Cancer Brain Injury and Neurodegenerative Disorders Diabetes Irritable Bowel Disease Depression Reducing Use of other Harmful Substances 13.9 Chronic Effects of Cannabis Tolerance Dependence Withdrawal Treatment for Cannabis Dependence Canada's Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Part 4 Commonly Used Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs Chapter 14: Drugs for Treating Psychological Disorders True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 14.1 Psychological Disorders in Today's Society 14.2 Major Depressive Disorder Prevalence of Depression Causes of Depression Genetics Neurochemistry Neuroanatomy Overactive Stress Response Inflammation and Immune Factors Diet Gut Bacteria Psychological Factors Social Factors Symptoms of Depression Diagnosis of Depression Prognosis of Depression Antidepressant Treatments History of Antidepressant Treatment Prevalence of Antidepressant Drugs Pharmacokinetics of Antidepressant Drugs Antidepressant Drug Interactions Mechanism of Action of Antidepressant Drugs Side Effects of Antidepressant Drugs Efficacy of Antidepressant Drugs Effect of Antidepressant Drug Use during Pregnancy Other Treatments for Depression Hallucinogens Psychotherapies Electroconvulsive Therapy Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation 14.3 Bipolar Disorder Prevalence of Bipolar Disorder Causes of Bipolar Disorder Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder Treatment of Bipolar Disorder 14.4 Schizophrenia Prevalence of Schizophrenia Causes of Schizophrenia Genetics Structural Abnormalities in the Brain Neurochemical Abnormalities Environmental Factors Symptoms of Schizophrenia Prognosis of Schizophrenia Treatments for Schizophrenia Mechanism of Action of Antipsychotic Drugs Side Effects Associated with Antipsychotic Drugs Efficacy of Antipsychotic Drugs Overprescription of Antipsychotic Drugs Other Treatments for Schizophrenia 14.5 Anxiety Disorders Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders Causes of Anxiety Disorders Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders Treatment of Anxiety Disorders 14.6 Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders 14.7 The Future of Drugs Used to Treat Mental Illness Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 15: Performance-Enhancing Drugs True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 15.1 Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids History of Performance-Enhancing Drugs Prevalence of Performance-Enhancing Drug Use Forms of Performance-Enhancing Drugs Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AAS) Central Nervous System Stimulants Pain Relievers Blood Doping Beta2-Agonists and Beta-Blockers Human Growth Hormone Creatine Pharmacokinetics and Mechanism of Action of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Routes of Administration Dosage and Pattern of Use Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination Mechanism of Action Acute Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Physiological Effects Musculoskeletal Effects Fat, Skin, and Hair Reproductive Effects Cardiovascular Effects Liver Cognitive Effects Immunity Athletic Performance Psychological Effects Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Tolerance and Dependence Prevention and Treatment of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Abuse 15.2 Drugs to Treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Diagnosis of ADHD Inattention Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Prevalence of ADHD Sex/Gender Age Why the Increase in Prevalence? Causes of ADHD Consequences of ADHD Pharmacological Treatments for ADHD Pharmacokinetics of ADHD Drugs Mechanism of Action of ADHD Drugs Physiological and Psychological Effects of ADHD Drugs Effectiveness of ADHD Drugs Nonpharmaceutical Treatments for ADHD Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Chapter 16: Over-the-Counter Drugs and Natural Health Products True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 16.1 Over-the-Counter Drugs: Regulation and Dangers Over-the-Counter Regulations Dangers of Over-the-Counter Drugs and Self-Care 16.2 Non-Narcotic Analgesics History of Non-Narcotic Analgesics Prevalence of Non-Narcotic Analgesic Use Pharmacokinetics of Non-Narcotic Analgesics Prostaglandins COX1 and COX2 Mechanism of Action of Non-Narcotic Analgesics Acute Effects and Medical Benefits of Non-Narcotic Analgesics at Low and Moderate Doses Analgesia Antipyretic Anti-inflammatory Anticoagulant Cardioprotective Effects Cancer Alzheimer's Disease Adverse Effects of Non-Narcotic Analgesics Side Effects Associated with Non-Narcotic Analgesics GI Distress and Decreased Blood Clotting Cardiovascular Problems Allergy Asthma Exacerbation Ringing in the Ears Kidney Failure Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Reye's Syndrome Liver Failure Loss of Empathy and Blunted Emotions Use During Pregnancy Drug Interactions Overdose 16.3 Cough, Cold, and Allergy Products Components of Cough and Cold Medications Cough Suppressants and Expectorants Decongestants Antihistamines 16.4 Over-the-Counter Drugs to Treat Gastrointestinal Ailments Drugs to Treat Heartburn, Gastric Reflux, and Peptic Ulcer Antacids H2 Blockers Proton Pump Inhibitors Drugs to Treat Diarrhea Laxatives Dietary Fibre and Bulk-Forming Laxatives Stool Softeners Lubricants Hyperosmotic Agents Stimulant Laxatives 16.5 Over-the-Counter Weight Loss Aids 16.6 Over-the-Counter Sleep Aids 16.7 Natural Health Products Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Section 5 Addiction, Prevention, and Treatment Chapter 17: Prevention and Treatment of Drug Use and Abuse True or False? Outline Learning Objectives 17.1 Types of Prevention Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention Universal Prevention Selective Prevention Indicated Prevention 17.2 School-Based Prevention Campaigns Ineffective K-12 School-Based Methods of Drug Abuse Prevention Cognitive Approaches and Scare Tactics Affective Programs Presentations by Law Enforcement Effective School-Based Methods of Drug Abuse Prevention Information Media Literacy Campaigns Skills Methods Family and Community Involvement Alcohol and Drug Prevention Programs at Colleges and Universities 17.3 Advertising Campaigns to Prevent Drug Use Anti-Drug Ads Anti-Tobacco Ads 17.4 Drug Testing When Do Drug Tests Typically Occur? What Process Is Used for Drug Testing? How Long after Using a Drug Will Someone Test Positive? What Types of Drug Tests are Used? Urine Saliva Hair Sweat Blood How Accurate Are Drug Tests? How Effective Are Drug Tests? Workplace Safety Workplace Productivity Prevention of Drug Use 17.5 Prevalence of Treatment for Alcohol and Drug Addiction 17.6 The Stages of Recovery 17.7 Methods of Treatment Pharmacological Treatments for Addiction Medications to Help with Nicotine Addiction Medications to Help with Alcohol Addiction Medications to Help with Opioid Addiction Immunopharmacotherapy Psychosocial Therapeutic Treatments for Addiction Inpatient Programs Outpatient Programs Self-Help Groups Secular Recovery Programs 17.8 Characteristics of Effective Addiction Treatments 17.9 Relapse Chapter Summary Quiz Yourself! Notes Appendix A: Critically Thinking About Drugs A.1 Conducting Research Ask Specific Research Questions Carefully Consider Your Study Populations Choose an Appropriate Method of Investigation Surveys Observational Methods Controlled Experiments Use Valid and Precise Measurements Reproducibility, Reliability, and Replication Conduct a Safe, Ethical, and Unbiased Study Maintain Objectivity Consider the Quality of and Vetting of Information Animal Research A.2 Critical Thinking Recognize Underlying Value Assumptions Evaluate the Strength of the Argument Fallacies of Relevance Fallacies of Insufficient Evidence Critically Evaluate Graphs and Data Does the Graph Accurately Represent the Data? Are the Statistics Used Appropriately? The Self-Correcting Nature of Science Appendix B: Generic and Trade Name Drugs Appendix C: Drug Laws in Canada Answers to Quiz Yourself! Questions Glossary Index
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